Lazy Proofs for DPLL(T)-Based SMT Solvers

Lazy Proofs for DPLL(T)-Based SMT Solvers” by Guy Katz, Clark Barrett, Cesare Tinelli, Andrew Reynolds, and Liana Hadarean. In Proceedings of the 16^th International Conference on Formal Methods In Computer-Aided Design (FMCAD '16), (Ruzica Piskac and Muralidhar Talupur, eds.), Oct. 2016, pp. 93-100. Mountain View, California. Best paper award..


With the integration of SMT solvers into analysis frameworks aimed at ensuring a system's end-to-end correctness, having a high level of confidence in these solvers' results has become crucial. For unsatisfiable queries, a reasonable approach is to have the solver return an independently checkable proof of unsatisfiability. We propose a lazy, extensible and robust method for enhancing DPLL(T)-style SMT solvers with proof-generation capabilities. Our method maintains separate Boolean-level and theory-level proofs, and weaves them together into one coherent artifact. Each theory-specific solver is called upon lazily, a posteriori, to prove precisely those solution steps it is responsible for and that are needed for the final proof. We present an implementation of our technique in the CVC4 SMT solver. CVC4 can produce unsatisfiability proofs for quantifier-free queries involving uninterpreted functions, arrays, bitvectors and combinations thereof. We discuss an evaluation of our tool using industrial benchmarks and benchmarks from the SMT-LIB library, which shows promising results.

BibTeX entry:

   author = {Guy Katz and Clark Barrett and Cesare Tinelli and Andrew
	Reynolds and Liana Hadarean},
   editor = {Ruzica Piskac and Muralidhar Talupur},
   title = {Lazy Proofs for {DPLL(T)}-Based {SMT} Solvers},
   booktitle = {Proceedings of the {\it 16^{th}} International Conference
	on Formal Methods In Computer-Aided Design (FMCAD '16)},
   pages = {93--100},
   publisher = {FMCAD Inc.},
   month = oct,
   year = {2016},
   note = {Mountain View, California. {\em Best paper award.}},
   url = {}

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